Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus Abgesehen von der Aufstellung der Steine ist dies aber nur ein Beispiel. Weder die Farben der Steine, noch die Zugrichtung noch die Position. Spielbrett und Grundaufstellung. Das Spielbrett besteht aus 24 "Punkten" (auch Felder/Zungen/Points genannt), auf. Spielanleitung/Spielregeln Backgammon (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz.
BackgammonSpielanleitung/Spielregeln Backgammon (Anleitung/Regel/Regeln), BrettspielNetz. Die Backgammon Aufstellung ist symmetrisch. Gespielt wird mit 15 weissen respektive schwarzen Steinen. Auf dem 1. bzw. Point liegen zwei. Startaufstellung der Blots. Welche Fachbegriffe sollte man bei.
Backgammon is a board game where two players compete to get all their 15 pieces off the board before the opponent. Board pieces move based on dice throws.
This is a game of skill. A single game can be decided by luck, but the more one plays, the more the skill is important.
Even a beginner can beat an expert through luck of draw in a single game, but after several games the skill prevails.
This version of Backgammon uses an advanced neural network in the highest levels, and will challenge advanced players.
It also offers a fun experience for beginners, with lower difficulty levels and showing possible moves. The scoring is based on the official Backgammon ELO system, with each game increasing or reducing rating points every game or match.
The first player to bear off all fifteen checkers wins the game. Backgammon is played for an agreed stake per point.
Each game starts at one point. During the course of the game, a player who feels he has a sufficient advantage may propose doubling the stakes.
He may do this only at the start of his own turn and before he has rolled the dice. A player who is offered a double may refuse , in which case he concedes the game and pays one point.
Otherwise, he must accept the double and play on for the new higher stakes. A player who accepts a double becomes the owner of the cube and only he may make the next double.
Subsequent doubles in the same game are called redoubles. If a player refuses a redouble, he must pay the number of points that were at stake prior to the redouble.
Otherwise, he becomes the new owner of the cube and the game continues at twice the previous stakes. There is no limit to the number of redoubles in a game.
Gammons and Backgammons. At the end of the game, if the losing player has borne off at least one checker, he loses only the value showing on the doubling cube one point, if there have been no doubles.
However, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers, he is gammoned and loses twice the value of the doubling cube. Or, worse, if the loser has not borne off any of his checkers and still has a checker on the bar or in the winner's home board, he is backgammoned and loses three times the value of the doubling cube.
Optional Rules. Der Spieler gewinnt, welcher dies zuerst geschafft hat. Hierbei gibt es unterschiedliche Methoden und Taktiken um den Gegener an dem Ziel zu hindern.
Die Regeln bei einem normalen Backgammon Spiel unterscheiden sich trotz der gleichen Aufstellung mit Tavli stark. Portes ist hierbei die Runde, welche die meisten Ähnlichkeiten mit Backgammon hat, mit folgenden Unterschiedlichkeiten:.
Für den Backgammon Start und das Set up benötigt man ein Spielbrett, bspw. Die Anordning, Aufstellung, bzw. Die Zahlen auf diesem Würfel zeigen die Steigerungsmöglichkeit von 2-fach bis fach.
Backgammon Koffer sind jedoch auch bereits recht günstig online bestellbar. Sie möchten den Dopplungswürfel einmal gegen echte Gegner um Backgammon um Geld einsetzen?
Jetzt online bei Backgammon anmelden und gegen echte Gegner spielen. Hierbei wird der Einsatz verdoppelt — wenn man um Punkte spielt kann man dies so lange machen, bis die maximale Punktzahl erreicht ist.
In der Regel sollte man als Spieler nur dann den Dopplungswürfel nutzen, wenn man sich zu dem Zeitpunkt des Angebots über die eigenen Chancen bewusst ist — bspw.
Um die Chance zu maximieren, dass der gegnerische Spieler das Angebot annimmt, darf im Gegenzug die Chancenverteilung jedoch auch nicht zu extrem sein.
Wird das Angebot zurückgewiesen, verliert der Gegner sofort das Spiel und zahlt den bestehenden Einsatz zum Zeitpunkt der Zurückweisung. Das Spiel ist beendet und ein neues Spiel kann beginnen.
Steht man selber in der Position das Dopplungsangebot anzunehmen, so gilt abzuwägen ob man das Spiel noch gewinnen kann, oder wie hoch die Chancen stehen das Spiel zu verlieren.
Nimmt man die Verdopplung an, so ist man als nächstes an der Reihe, wenn es darum geht zu verdoppeln. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.
Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the "Backgammon Million" tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.
Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games. Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.
The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.
For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India. According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress.
On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.
As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game.
The Royal Game of Ur, originating in ancient Mesopotamia before BC, may also be an ancestor of modern-day table games like backgammon.
It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses. Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.
In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle , which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 'six' in Hebrew , Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
Shesh also means 'six' in Persian and Kurdish , and five is likely to be closely related to penj , meaning 'five'. There are two games of nardi commonly played:.
Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.
The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board. In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point.
There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube.
Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt. Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC.
The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
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